Django documentation

This document is for Django's SVN release, which can be significantly different from previous releases. Get old docs here: Django 1.0

Available settings

Here’s a full list of all available settings, in alphabetical order, and their default values.

ABSOLUTE_URL_OVERRIDES

Default: {} (Empty dictionary)

A dictionary mapping "app_label.model_name" strings to functions that take a model object and return its URL. This is a way of overriding get_absolute_url() methods on a per-installation basis. Example:

ABSOLUTE_URL_OVERRIDES = {
    'blogs.weblog': lambda o: "/blogs/%s/" % o.slug,
    'news.story': lambda o: "/stories/%s/%s/" % (o.pub_year, o.slug),
}

Note that the model name used in this setting should be all lower-case, regardless of the case of the actual model class name.

ADMIN_FOR

Default: () (Empty tuple)

Used for admin-site settings modules, this should be a tuple of settings modules (in the format 'foo.bar.baz') for which this site is an admin.

The admin site uses this in its automatically-introspected documentation of models, views and template tags.

ADMIN_MEDIA_PREFIX

Default: '/media/'

The URL prefix for admin media -- CSS, JavaScript and images used by the Django administrative interface. Make sure to use a trailing slash, and to have this be different from the MEDIA_URL setting (since the same URL cannot be mapped onto two different sets of files).

ADMINS

Default: () (Empty tuple)

A tuple that lists people who get code error notifications. When DEBUG=False and a view raises an exception, Django will e-mail these people with the full exception information. Each member of the tuple should be a tuple of (Full name, e-mail address). Example:

(('John', 'john@example.com'), ('Mary', 'mary@example.com'))

Note that Django will e-mail all of these people whenever an error happens. See Error reporting via e-mail for more information.

ALLOWED_INCLUDE_ROOTS

Default: () (Empty tuple)

A tuple of strings representing allowed prefixes for the {% ssi %} template tag. This is a security measure, so that template authors can't access files that they shouldn't be accessing.

For example, if ALLOWED_INCLUDE_ROOTS is ('/home/html', '/var/www'), then {% ssi /home/html/foo.txt %} would work, but {% ssi /etc/passwd %} wouldn't.

APPEND_SLASH

Default: True

Whether to append trailing slashes to URLs. This is only used if CommonMiddleware is installed (see Middleware). See also PREPEND_WWW.

AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS

Default: ('django.contrib.auth.backends.ModelBackend',)

A tuple of authentication backend classes (as strings) to use when attempting to authenticate a user. See the authentication backends documentation for details.

AUTH_PROFILE_MODULE

Default: Not defined

The site-specific user profile model used by this site. See Storing additional information about users.

CACHE_BACKEND

Default: 'locmem://'

The cache backend to use. See Django's cache framework.

CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_KEY_PREFIX

Default: '' (Empty string)

The cache key prefix that the cache middleware should use. See Django's cache framework.

CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_SECONDS

Default: 600

The default number of seconds to cache a page when the caching middleware or cache_page() decorator is used.

CSRF_FAILURE_VIEW

New in Django Development version.

Default: 'django.views.csrf.csrf_failure'

A dotted path to the view function to be used when an incoming request is rejected by the CSRF protection. The function should have this signature:

def csrf_failure(request, reason="")

where reason is a short message (intended for developers or logging, not for end users) indicating the reason the request was rejected. See Cross Site Request Forgery protection.

DATABASE_ENGINE

Default: '' (Empty string)

The database backend to use. The built-in database backends are 'postgresql_psycopg2', 'postgresql', 'mysql', 'sqlite3', and 'oracle'.

You can use a database backend that doesn't ship with Django by setting DATABASE_ENGINE to a fully-qualified path (i.e. mypackage.backends.whatever). Writing a whole new database backend from scratch is left as an exercise to the reader; see the other backends for examples.

New in Django 1.0: Support for external database backends is new in 1.0.

DATABASE_HOST

Default: '' (Empty string)

Which host to use when connecting to the database. An empty string means localhost. Not used with SQLite.

If this value starts with a forward slash ('/') and you're using MySQL, MySQL will connect via a Unix socket to the specified socket. For example:

DATABASE_HOST = '/var/run/mysql'

If you're using MySQL and this value doesn't start with a forward slash, then this value is assumed to be the host.

If you're using PostgreSQL, an empty string means to use a Unix domain socket for the connection, rather than a network connection to localhost. If you explicitly need to use a TCP/IP connection on the local machine with PostgreSQL, specify localhost here.

DATABASE_NAME

Default: '' (Empty string)

The name of the database to use. For SQLite, it's the full path to the database file. When specifying the path, always use forward slashes, even on Windows (e.g. C:/homes/user/mysite/sqlite3.db).

DATABASE_OPTIONS

Default: {} (Empty dictionary)

Extra parameters to use when connecting to the database. Consult backend module's document for available keywords.

DATABASE_PASSWORD

Default: '' (Empty string)

The password to use when connecting to the database. Not used with SQLite.

DATABASE_PORT

Default: '' (Empty string)

The port to use when connecting to the database. An empty string means the default port. Not used with SQLite.

DATABASE_USER

Default: '' (Empty string)

The username to use when connecting to the database. Not used with SQLite.

DATE_FORMAT

Default: 'N j, Y' (e.g. Feb. 4, 2003)

The default formatting to use for date fields on Django admin change-list pages -- and, possibly, by other parts of the system. See allowed date format strings.

See also DATETIME_FORMAT, TIME_FORMAT, YEAR_MONTH_FORMAT and MONTH_DAY_FORMAT.

DATETIME_FORMAT

Default: 'N j, Y, P' (e.g. Feb. 4, 2003, 4 p.m.)

The default formatting to use for datetime fields on Django admin change-list pages -- and, possibly, by other parts of the system. See allowed date format strings.

See also DATE_FORMAT, DATETIME_FORMAT, TIME_FORMAT, YEAR_MONTH_FORMAT and MONTH_DAY_FORMAT.

DEBUG

Default: False

A boolean that turns on/off debug mode.

If you define custom settings, django/views/debug.py has a HIDDEN_SETTINGS regular expression which will hide from the DEBUG view anything that contains 'SECRET', 'PASSWORD', or 'PROFANITIES'. This allows untrusted users to be able to give backtraces without seeing sensitive (or offensive) settings.

Still, note that there are always going to be sections of your debug output that are inappropriate for public consumption. File paths, configuration options, and the like all give attackers extra information about your server.

It is also important to remember that when running with DEBUG turned on, Django will remember every SQL query it executes. This is useful when you are debugging, but on a production server, it will rapidly consume memory.

Never deploy a site into production with DEBUG turned on.

DEBUG_PROPAGATE_EXCEPTIONS

New in Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

Default: False

If set to True, Django's normal exception handling of view functions will be suppressed, and exceptions will propagate upwards. This can be useful for some test setups, and should never be used on a live site.

DEFAULT_CHARSET

Default: 'utf-8'

Default charset to use for all HttpResponse objects, if a MIME type isn't manually specified. Used with DEFAULT_CONTENT_TYPE to construct the Content-Type header.

DEFAULT_CONTENT_TYPE

Default: 'text/html'

Default content type to use for all HttpResponse objects, if a MIME type isn't manually specified. Used with DEFAULT_CHARSET to construct the Content-Type header.

DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE

Default: 'django.core.files.storage.FileSystemStorage'

Default file storage class to be used for any file-related operations that don't specify a particular storage system. See Managing files.

DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL

Default: 'webmaster@localhost'

Default e-mail address to use for various automated correspondence from the site manager(s).

DEFAULT_TABLESPACE

New in Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

Default: '' (Empty string)

Default tablespace to use for models that don't specify one, if the backend supports it.

DEFAULT_INDEX_TABLESPACE

New in Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

Default: '' (Empty string)

Default tablespace to use for indexes on fields that don't specify one, if the backend supports it.

DISALLOWED_USER_AGENTS

Default: () (Empty tuple)

List of compiled regular expression objects representing User-Agent strings that are not allowed to visit any page, systemwide. Use this for bad robots/crawlers. This is only used if CommonMiddleware is installed (see Middleware).

EMAIL_BACKEND

New in Django Development version.

Default: 'django.core.mail.backends.smtp'

The backend to use for sending emails. For the list of available backends see Sending e-mail.

EMAIL_FILE_PATH

New in Django Development version.

Default: Not defined

The directory used by the file email backend to store output files.

EMAIL_HOST

Default: 'localhost'

The host to use for sending e-mail.

See also EMAIL_PORT.

EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD

Default: '' (Empty string)

Password to use for the SMTP server defined in EMAIL_HOST. This setting is used in conjunction with EMAIL_HOST_USER when authenticating to the SMTP server. If either of these settings is empty, Django won't attempt authentication.

See also EMAIL_HOST_USER.

EMAIL_HOST_USER

Default: '' (Empty string)

Username to use for the SMTP server defined in EMAIL_HOST. If empty, Django won't attempt authentication.

See also EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD.

EMAIL_PORT

Default: 25

Port to use for the SMTP server defined in EMAIL_HOST.

EMAIL_SUBJECT_PREFIX

Default: '[Django] '

Subject-line prefix for e-mail messages sent with django.core.mail.mail_admins or django.core.mail.mail_managers. You'll probably want to include the trailing space.

EMAIL_USE_TLS

New in Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

Default: False

Whether to use a TLS (secure) connection when talking to the SMTP server.

FILE_CHARSET

New in Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

Default: 'utf-8'

The character encoding used to decode any files read from disk. This includes template files and initial SQL data files.

FILE_UPLOAD_HANDLERS

New in Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

Default:

("django.core.files.uploadhandler.MemoryFileUploadHandler",
 "django.core.files.uploadhandler.TemporaryFileUploadHandler",)

A tuple of handlers to use for uploading. See Managing files for details.

FILE_UPLOAD_MAX_MEMORY_SIZE

New in Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

Default: 2621440 (i.e. 2.5 MB).

The maximum size (in bytes) that an upload will be before it gets streamed to the file system. See Managing files for details.

FILE_UPLOAD_TEMP_DIR

New in Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

Default: None

The directory to store data temporarily while uploading files. If None, Django will use the standard temporary directory for the operating system. For example, this will default to '/tmp' on *nix-style operating systems.

See Managing files for details.

FILE_UPLOAD_PERMISSIONS

Default: None

The numeric mode (i.e. 0644) to set newly uploaded files to. For more information about what these modes mean, see the documentation for os.chmod

If this isn't given or is None, you'll get operating-system dependent behavior. On most platforms, temporary files will have a mode of 0600, and files saved from memory will be saved using the system's standard umask.

Warning

Always prefix the mode with a 0.

If you're not familiar with file modes, please note that the leading 0 is very important: it indicates an octal number, which is the way that modes must be specified. If you try to use 644, you'll get totally incorrect behavior.

FIXTURE_DIRS

Default: () (Empty tuple)

List of locations of the fixture data files, in search order. Note that these paths should use Unix-style forward slashes, even on Windows. See Testing Django applications.

FORCE_SCRIPT_NAME

Default: None

If not None, this will be used as the value of the SCRIPT_NAME environment variable in any HTTP request. This setting can be used to override the server-provided value of SCRIPT_NAME, which may be a rewritten version of the preferred value or not supplied at all.

IGNORABLE_404_ENDS

Default: ('mail.pl', 'mailform.pl', 'mail.cgi', 'mailform.cgi', 'favicon.ico', '.php')

See also IGNORABLE_404_STARTS and Error reporting via e-mail.

IGNORABLE_404_STARTS

Default: ('/cgi-bin/', '/_vti_bin', '/_vti_inf')

A tuple of strings that specify beginnings of URLs that should be ignored by the 404 e-mailer. See SEND_BROKEN_LINK_EMAILS, IGNORABLE_404_ENDS and the Error reporting via e-mail.

INSTALLED_APPS

Default: () (Empty tuple)

A tuple of strings designating all applications that are enabled in this Django installation. Each string should be a full Python path to a Python package that contains a Django application, as created by django-admin.py startapp.

INTERNAL_IPS

Default: () (Empty tuple)

A tuple of IP addresses, as strings, that:

  • See debug comments, when DEBUG is True
  • Receive X headers if the XViewMiddleware is installed (see Middleware)

LANGUAGE_CODE

Default: 'en-us'

A string representing the language code for this installation. This should be in standard language format. For example, U.S. English is "en-us". See Internationalization.

LANGUAGES

Default: A tuple of all available languages. This list is continually growing and including a copy here would inevitably become rapidly out of date. You can see the current list of translated languages by looking in django/conf/global_settings.py (or view the online source).

The list is a tuple of two-tuples in the format (language code, language name) -- for example, ('ja', 'Japanese'). This specifies which languages are available for language selection. See Internationalization.

Generally, the default value should suffice. Only set this setting if you want to restrict language selection to a subset of the Django-provided languages.

If you define a custom LANGUAGES setting, it's OK to mark the languages as translation strings (as in the default value displayed above) -- but use a "dummy" gettext() function, not the one in django.utils.translation. You should never import django.utils.translation from within your settings file, because that module in itself depends on the settings, and that would cause a circular import.

The solution is to use a "dummy" gettext() function. Here's a sample settings file:

gettext = lambda s: s

LANGUAGES = (
    ('de', gettext('German')),
    ('en', gettext('English')),
)

With this arrangement, django-admin.py makemessages will still find and mark these strings for translation, but the translation won't happen at runtime -- so you'll have to remember to wrap the languages in the real gettext() in any code that uses LANGUAGES at runtime.

LOCALE_PATHS

Default: () (Empty tuple)

A tuple of directories where Django looks for translation files. See Using translations in your own projects.

LOGIN_REDIRECT_URL

New in Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

Default: '/accounts/profile/'

The URL where requests are redirected after login when the contrib.auth.login view gets no next parameter.

This is used by the login_required() decorator, for example.

LOGIN_URL

New in Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

Default: '/accounts/login/'

The URL where requests are redirected for login, specially when using the login_required() decorator.

LOGOUT_URL

New in Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

Default: '/accounts/logout/'

LOGIN_URL counterpart.

MANAGERS

Default: () (Empty tuple)

A tuple in the same format as ADMINS that specifies who should get broken-link notifications when SEND_BROKEN_LINK_EMAILS=True.

MEDIA_ROOT

Default: '' (Empty string)

Absolute path to the directory that holds media for this installation. Example: "/home/media/media.lawrence.com/" See also MEDIA_URL.

MEDIA_URL

Default: '' (Empty string)

URL that handles the media served from MEDIA_ROOT. Example: "http://media.lawrence.com"

Note that this should have a trailing slash if it has a path component.

Good: "http://www.example.com/static/" Bad: "http://www.example.com/static"

MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES

Default:

('django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
 'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware',
 'django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware',
 'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware',)

A tuple of middleware classes to use. See Middleware.

MONTH_DAY_FORMAT

Default: 'F j'

The default formatting to use for date fields on Django admin change-list pages -- and, possibly, by other parts of the system -- in cases when only the month and day are displayed.

For example, when a Django admin change-list page is being filtered by a date drilldown, the header for a given day displays the day and month. Different locales have different formats. For example, U.S. English would say "January 1," whereas Spanish might say "1 Enero."

See allowed date format strings. See also DATE_FORMAT, DATETIME_FORMAT, TIME_FORMAT and YEAR_MONTH_FORMAT.

PREPEND_WWW

Default: False

Whether to prepend the "www." subdomain to URLs that don't have it. This is only used if CommonMiddleware is installed (see Middleware). See also APPEND_SLASH.

PROFANITIES_LIST

A tuple of profanities, as strings, that will trigger a validation error when the hasNoProfanities validator is called.

We don't list the default values here, because that would be profane. To see the default values, see the file django/conf/global_settings.py.

ROOT_URLCONF

Default: Not defined

A string representing the full Python import path to your root URLconf. For example: "mydjangoapps.urls". Can be overridden on a per-request basis by setting the attribute urlconf on the incoming HttpRequest object. See How Django processes a request for details.

SECRET_KEY

Default: '' (Empty string)

A secret key for this particular Django installation. Used to provide a seed in secret-key hashing algorithms. Set this to a random string -- the longer, the better. django-admin.py startproject creates one automatically.

SERIALIZATION_MODULES

Default: Not defined.

A dictionary of modules containing serializer definitions (provided as strings), keyed by a string identifier for that serialization type. For example, to define a YAML serializer, use:

SERIALIZATION_MODULES = { 'yaml' : 'path.to.yaml_serializer' }

SERVER_EMAIL

Default: 'root@localhost'

The e-mail address that error messages come from, such as those sent to ADMINS and MANAGERS.

SESSION_ENGINE

New in Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

Default: django.contrib.sessions.backends.db

Controls where Django stores session data. Valid values are:

  • 'django.contrib.sessions.backends.db'
  • 'django.contrib.sessions.backends.file'
  • 'django.contrib.sessions.backends.cache'

See How to use sessions.

SESSION_EXPIRE_AT_BROWSER_CLOSE

Default: False

Whether to expire the session when the user closes his or her browser. See the How to use sessions.

SESSION_FILE_PATH

New in Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

Default: None

If you're using file-based session storage, this sets the directory in which Django will store session data. See How to use sessions. When the default value (None) is used, Django will use the standard temporary directory for the system.

SESSION_SAVE_EVERY_REQUEST

Default: False

Whether to save the session data on every request. See How to use sessions.

SITE_ID

Default: Not defined

The ID, as an integer, of the current site in the django_site database table. This is used so that application data can hook into specific site(s) and a single database can manage content for multiple sites.

See The "sites" framework.

TEMPLATE_CONTEXT_PROCESSORS

Default:

("django.core.context_processors.auth",
"django.core.context_processors.debug",
"django.core.context_processors.i18n",
"django.core.context_processors.media")

A tuple of callables that are used to populate the context in RequestContext. These callables take a request object as their argument and return a dictionary of items to be merged into the context.

TEMPLATE_DEBUG

Default: False

A boolean that turns on/off template debug mode. If this is True, the fancy error page will display a detailed report for any TemplateSyntaxError. This report contains the relevant snippet of the template, with the appropriate line highlighted.

Note that Django only displays fancy error pages if DEBUG is True, so you'll want to set that to take advantage of this setting.

See also DEBUG.

TEMPLATE_DIRS

Default: () (Empty tuple)

List of locations of the template source files, in search order. Note that these paths should use Unix-style forward slashes, even on Windows.

See The Django template language..

TEMPLATE_LOADERS

Default:

('django.template.loaders.filesystem.load_template_source',
 'django.template.loaders.app_directories.load_template_source')

A tuple of callables (as strings) that know how to import templates from various sources. See The Django template language: For Python programmers.

TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID

Default: '' (Empty string)

Output, as a string, that the template system should use for invalid (e.g. misspelled) variables. See How invalid variables are handled..

TEST_DATABASE_CHARSET

New in Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

Default: None

The character set encoding used to create the test database. The value of this string is passed directly through to the database, so its format is backend-specific.

Supported for the PostgreSQL (postgresql, postgresql_psycopg2) and MySQL (mysql) backends.

TEST_DATABASE_COLLATION

New in Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

Default: None

The collation order to use when creating the test database. This value is passed directly to the backend, so its format is backend-specific.

Only supported for the mysql backend (see section 10.3.2 of the MySQL manual for details).

TEST_DATABASE_NAME

Default: None

The name of database to use when running the test suite.

If the default value (None) is used with the SQLite database engine, the tests will use a memory resident database. For all other database engines the test database will use the name 'test_' + settings.DATABASE_NAME.

See Testing Django applications.

TEST_RUNNER

Default: 'django.test.simple.run_tests'

The name of the method to use for starting the test suite. See Testing Django applications.

TIME_FORMAT

Default: 'P' (e.g. 4 p.m.)

The default formatting to use for time fields on Django admin change-list pages -- and, possibly, by other parts of the system. See allowed date format strings.

See also DATE_FORMAT, DATETIME_FORMAT, TIME_FORMAT, YEAR_MONTH_FORMAT and MONTH_DAY_FORMAT.

TIME_ZONE

Default: 'America/Chicago'

A string representing the time zone for this installation. See available choices. (Note that list of available choices lists more than one on the same line; you'll want to use just one of the choices for a given time zone. For instance, one line says 'Europe/London GB GB-Eire', but you should use the first bit of that -- 'Europe/London' -- as your TIME_ZONE setting.)

Note that this is the time zone to which Django will convert all dates/times -- not necessarily the timezone of the server. For example, one server may serve multiple Django-powered sites, each with a separate time-zone setting.

Normally, Django sets the os.environ['TZ'] variable to the time zone you specify in the TIME_ZONE setting. Thus, all your views and models will automatically operate in the correct time zone. However, if you're manually manually configuring settings, Django will not touch the TZ environment variable, and it'll be up to you to ensure your processes are running in the correct environment.

Note

Django cannot reliably use alternate time zones in a Windows environment. If you're running Django on Windows, this variable must be set to match the system timezone.

URL_VALIDATOR_USER_AGENT

Default: Django/<version> (http://www.djangoproject.com/)

The string to use as the User-Agent header when checking to see if URLs exist (see the verify_exists option on URLField).

USE_ETAGS

Default: False

A boolean that specifies whether to output the "Etag" header. This saves bandwidth but slows down performance. This is only used if CommonMiddleware is installed (see Middleware).

USE_I18N

Default: True

A boolean that specifies whether Django's internationalization system should be enabled. This provides an easy way to turn it off, for performance. If this is set to False, Django will make some optimizations so as not to load the internationalization machinery.

YEAR_MONTH_FORMAT

Default: 'F Y'

The default formatting to use for date fields on Django admin change-list pages -- and, possibly, by other parts of the system -- in cases when only the year and month are displayed.

For example, when a Django admin change-list page is being filtered by a date drilldown, the header for a given month displays the month and the year. Different locales have different formats. For example, U.S. English would say "January 2006," whereas another locale might say "2006/January."

See allowed date format strings. See also DATE_FORMAT, DATETIME_FORMAT, TIME_FORMAT and MONTH_DAY_FORMAT.

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