Django documentation

This document is for Django's SVN release, which can be significantly different from previous releases. Get old docs here: Django 1.0

Signals

Django includes a “signal dispatcher” which helps allow decoupled applications get notified when actions occur elsewhere in the framework. In a nutshell, signals allow certain senders to notify a set of receivers that some action has taken place. They’re especially useful when many pieces of code may be interested in the same events.

Django provides a set of built-in signals that let user code get notified by Django itself of certain actions. These include some useful notifications:

See the built-in signal documentation for a complete list, and a complete explanation of each signal.

You can also define and send your own custom signals; see below.

Listening to signals

To receive a signal, you need to register a receiver function that gets called when the signal is sent. Let’s see how this works by registering a signal that gets called after each HTTP request is finished. We’ll be connecting to the request_finished signal.

Receiver functions

First, we need to define a receiver function. A receiver can be any Python function or method:

def my_callback(sender, **kwargs):
    print "Request finished!"

Notice that the function takes a sender argument, along with wildcard keyword arguments (**kwargs); all signal handlers must take these arguments.

We'll look at senders a bit later, but right now look at the **kwargs argument. All signals send keyword arguments, and may change those keyword arguments at any time. In the case of request_finished, it's documented as sending no arguments, which means we might be tempted to write our signal handling as my_callback(sender).

This would be wrong -- in fact, Django will throw an error if you do so. That's because at any point arguments could get added to the signal and your receiver must be able to handle those new arguments.

Connecting receiver functions

Next, we'll need to connect our receiver to the signal:

from django.core.signals import request_finished

request_finished.connect(my_callback)

Now, our my_callback function will be called each time a request finishes.

Where should this code live?

You can put signal handling and registration code anywhere you like. However, you'll need to make sure that the module it's in gets imported early on so that the signal handling gets registered before any signals need to be sent. This makes your app's models.py a good place to put registration of signal handlers.

Connecting to signals sent by specific senders

Some signals get sent many times, but you'll only be interested in recieving a certain subset of those signals. For example, consider the django.db.models.signals.pre_save signal sent before a model gets saved. Most of the time, you don't need to know when any model gets saved -- just when one specific model is saved.

In these cases, you can register to receive signals sent only by particular senders. In the case of django.db.models.signals.pre_save, the sender will be the model class being saved, so you can indicate that you only want signals sent by some model:

from django.db.models.signals import pre_save
from myapp.models import MyModel

def my_handler(sender, **kwargs):
    ...

pre_save.connect(my_handler, sender=MyModel)

The my_handler function will only be called when an instance of MyModel is saved.

Different signals use different objects as their senders; you'll need to consult the built-in signal documentation for details of each particular signal.

Defining and sending signals

Your applications can take advantage of the signal infrastructure and provide its own signals.

Defining signals

class Signal([providing_args=list])

All signals are django.dispatch.Signal instances. The providing_args is a list of the names of arguments the signal will provide to listeners.

For example:

import django.dispatch

pizza_done = django.dispatch.Signal(providing_args=["toppings", "size"])

This declares a pizza_done signal that will provide receivers with toppings and size arguments.

Remember that you're allowed to change this list of arguments at any time, so getting the API right on the first try isn't necessary.

Sending signals

Signal.send(sender, **kwargs)

To send a signal, call Signal.send(). You must provide the sender argument, and may provide as many other keyword arguments as you like.

For example, here's how sending our pizza_done signal might look:

class PizzaStore(object):
    ...

    def send_pizza(self, toppings, size):
        pizza_done.send(sender=self, toppings=toppings, size=size)
        ...

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